The Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS) in Montpellier was created in 1992 in the context of the national IMABIO program, designed to reinforce structural biology in France, in particular outside Paris. Initially  specialized in X-rays cristallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) and bioinformatics, the CBS has extended its competencies to electron microscopy and biophysics (Atomic Force Microscopy, advanced fluorescence microscopies and nanomanipulation). One of the strengths of the CBS is to gather multiple and complementary methodologies on a same site in order to address major biological questions.

Part of the "GĂ©nopole Languedoc Roussillon" in 2001 as a structural biology platform, the CBS was approved as a RIO and IBISA platform in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Initially scattered over multiple sites, the CBS was finally unified at the end of 2005 on the renovated "Navacelles " site, which belongs to INSERM. It is now organized in 2 departments dedicated to structural biology and single molecule biophysics. As an interdisciplinary centre, the CBS depends on multiple entities: INSERM, CNRS (INSB), and University of Montpellier.